Mini-refineries – is an industrial enterprise, whose main function is the processing of crude oil (up to 1 million tons of crude per year) in gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oil.
Basic data of oil processing for refineries
Oil processing enterprises are located in all continents (except Antarctica) – operates more than 109 countries, 770 refineries. Ten of the greatest capacity (million tons/year) refineries are as follows: USA – 830; China – 340; Russia – 271; Japan – 234; India – 171; Canada – 166; South Korea – 135; Germany – 123; France – 120; Italy – 102; Power of individual refineries ranges from 50 thousand tons to 55 million tons per year (range of “Relans” Gujarat State, India). Owners of oil refineries (refinery) are both world’s leading companies engaged in the extraction, refining and supply of oil (American company «ExxonMobil», «Shell», «Shevron», «ConocoPhilipce» British «BritishPetrolium»), french «Total» Italian «Adgip», China «Sinopeck», Brazilian «Petrobraz», Indian «Indian Oil», the Russian “Rosneft”, “Lukoil”), as well as the company focused on oil refining («Valero Energy» in the USA).
The advantages of mini-refineries
The main advantages of mini-refineries competitive big tonnage refineries are the following:
- Short time of design and construction;
- Enhanced quality control;
- Use less power consumption;
- Less capital expenditures;
- Less land (area) for the plant;
- Less fieldwork;
- Reduced demand for skilled labour;
- Faster financial statements for the installed plant;
- Increased safety.
Construction stages of mini-refineries
- Feasibility Study investment facility construction;
- Construction project;
- Agreement, approval of the project;
- Design, construction equipment (equipment of all refinery complex);
- Construction works;
- Installation of equipment (commissioning, the output mode);
- Putting into operation.
The main project document for the construction of mini-refinery is a feasibility study. Composition, assignments of jobs for feasibility study development (feasibility study for the construction of the object).
1. Purpose of the feasibility study, the reasons for its development
The order of development, coordination, approval, part of the feasibility studies for the construction of new and change (expansion, modernization, modernization, reconstruction, restoration, overhaul) of existing enterprises, buildings, structures (hereinafter objects mini-refineries) are established by legislative, regulations and other regulatory documents of the state of the facility and are designed for use by all subjects of architecture, urban planning, construction activities on the territory of the State. The provisions of these regulations shall be observed in the development of feasibility study for construction of objects, constructed wholly or partly at the expense of public investment, as well as being built without the participation of public investment, but provides for the establishment by law of state ownership share in the volume of products or services provided. Feasibility study is carried out based on the data and the provisions contained in the plans of socio-economic development of the state, regional, industry, science and technology, and other government programs, schemes of development of productive forces, planning documentation (master plans for cities, settlements) as well other documents necessary for the construction of mini-refineries in the state of the facility. The results of the feasibility study are the basis for decision-making on economic necessity, technical capabilities, commercial, economic and social viability of investments in the construction, obtaining the Certificate of choice land for the object.
2. The composition of the feasibility study
In the feasibility study should be carried out alternative study, calculations of the proposed options, including basic space-planning solutions, calculations of investment efficiency, as well as the data of social, environmental and other impacts of the construction, operation of the facility, including the value of damages to landowners, land users, tenants, agricultural production losses associated with the seizure of land and others. The composition, the content of these materials should be sufficient for the validity of the feasibility study of the design decisions of the necessary approvals and examinations. The composition, content of a feasibility study should be sufficient to assess the feasibility, effectiveness of investment in the construction of a study of each section, which shall contain the results of the study of the feasibility and effectiveness of the construction project, conducted on the basis of economic cost-benefit analysis. The composition of the feasibility study for the production facilities shall consist of the following sections:
- Initial data (name of facility construction, place of implementation, expected sources, financing schemes, during the construction project, as well as background documentation for the feasibility study);
- Introduction (rationale for the construction of the facility, the purpose of investment, economic benefit expected from the operation of the facility, showing the main quantitative, qualitative parameters of the object);
- Marketing Section ( results of feasibility assessments; evaluation of existing, long-term demand for goods intended for production; analysis of the current state of the industry, the socioeconomic needs of the facility; assessment of commercial risks);
- Power Enterprise (rationale for the selection policy of sales, analysis of existing objects in the industry, development of sales promotions products, nomenclature, primary production, by-products; Assessment of the infrastructure of the region);
- providing enterprise resource management (enterprise need the necessary resources: raw materials, energy, labor, financial resources);
- basic technical and technological solutions (justification of the chosen technology main and auxiliary production based on a comparison of options processes according to their level of economic efficiency, safety, resource consumption per unit of production, as well as the degree of risk, the probability of accidents);
- location of the enterprise (the basic requirements to the location of the object);
- basic architectural solutions (basic architectural, space planning, design solutions);
- Transportation (rationale for the choice of options of transport schemes, infra-ways, highways);
- engineering systems (selection decisions on energy saving, heat, water, sewage and others. The studies of the selected schemes);
- Environmental impact assessment ( assessment of the impact of the project on the environment – activities of the proposed project to improve the environmental situation; environmental risk assessment);
- Institutional section (information on all participants of the project, their functions and management structure with an estimate of the financial costs);
- Financial Analysis ( estimates the total investment costs; Calculate the cost of key products; the calculation of income from sales consolidated cash flow calculation analysis of the project using simple methods of financial evaluation – analysis of the project using the methods of discounting – financial analysis under uncertainty – liquidity analysis of the project – the current financial state of the project participants; analysis of the scheme, sources of financing conditions as their alternatives; evaluation of financial risks);
- Economic efficiency of investments ( calculation of cost of construction assessment of the economic benefits, costs, – least-cost analysis – calculation of economic efficiency of the project; the definition of a risk assessment of investments);
- Social section ( need for labor on the categories of workers – the validity of the project in terms of sociology-cultural, demographic characteristics of the population; standards for the protection, safety – Social Risk Assessment);
- technical and economic parameters (data capacity of the facility construction, financial, economic indicators of the project, as well as the cost parameters of construction, cost of fixed assets, the cost of commercial products, the cost of major products, the estimated construction period, and so on. D.);
- general conclusions (conclusions of economic necessity, technical capabilities, commercial, economic and social viability of investments in the construction of the facility); The project to build a mini-refinery – a set of documents over which the construction work, the equipment is installed, pass an object into operation.
The quality of the design work depends very much – namely, the passage of expertise, speed, cost of construction. The composition of the project:
- Executive Summary;
- Master Plan and Transportation;
- Technological solutions;
- organization and working conditions of workers. Production management, enterprise;
- Architectural design;
- Engineering equipment, networks and systems;
- Organization of construction;
- Environmental protection;
- Engineering civil defense measures. Measures for the prevention of emergency situations;
- effectiveness of investments.
Agreement, approval of the construction project is carried out in the relevant state bodies (the procedure is carried out by the General Designer).
Designing, equipment manufacturing
Design and subsequent production of the main process equipment, which is part of mini-refineries, based on the following initial data (basic, all the necessary input data are listed in the questionnaire):
- feed stock (passport processing volumes);
- characteristics of the finished product (range, quality);
- construction site (report on engineering surveys, topographical survey of the construction site, environmental conditions, etc.);
- presence of water (wells), other energy resources;
- requirements for the automation process control.
Refinery equipment manufacturer enterprise delivers a set of equipment (block-modular) on the construction site, there after work was carried out site preparation for installation of the equipment. After the installation of the equipment is made complex of commissioning, commissioning of the equipment. Conclusion hardware mode, followed by confirmation of the quality of products in the independent accredited laboratory, is the final step before putting into operation.